Analysis of face milling cutters in various types of milling cutters

by:Ronix Tools     2021-05-18
Three-sided edge milling cutter is referred to as three-sided edge: the three edges have a relief angle, the edge is sharp, and the cutting is brisk. The face milling cutter is a standard machine tool, usually used on a horizontal milling machine, and is generally used for milling grooves and steps. Its shape is like 'the biscuits with a round hole in the middle'. Its outer circle and the two end faces near the outer circle have cutting edges (like wide serrations), so it is called a three-sided edge. The main cutting edges of the tri-face milling cutter are distributed on the cylindrical surface of the milling cutter, and the secondary cutting edges are distributed on both end surfaces. When in use, the knife is installed on the shank of the horizontal milling machine. Of course, it can also be installed on other machine tools. It is generally used for milling grooves and steps. Three-side and face milling cutter use In addition to the main cutting edge on the circumferential surface, the three-face and face milling cutter also has secondary cutting edges on both sides, thereby improving the cutting conditions, increasing the cutting efficiency and reducing the surface roughness. Mainly used for milling of stepped and grooved surfaces of metal materials with medium hardness and strength. It can also be used for processing of non-metallic materials. The superhard material three-sided and edge milling cutter is used for milling of stepped and grooved surfaces of difficult-to-cut materials. Processing. Mainly used for milling grooves of fixed size, but also for milling general grooves, stepped surfaces, and side surfaces. The main material for the three-side and face milling cutter is high-speed steel, also known as wind steel or front steel, which means that it can be hardened even if it is cooled in the air during quenching, and it is very sharp. It is a complex alloy steel, containing carbide forming elements such as tungsten, molybdenum, chromium, vanadium, and cobalt. The total amount of alloying elements is about 10-25%. It can maintain high hardness even when high heat is generated by high-speed cutting (about 500℃), and the HRC can be above 60. This is the main characteristic of high-speed steel-red hardness. After being quenched and tempered at low temperature, carbon tool steel has high hardness at room temperature, but when the temperature is higher than 200℃, the hardness drops sharply, and the hardness at 500℃ has dropped to a level similar to the annealed state. , Completely lost the ability to cut metal, which limits the production of cutting tools from carbon tool steel. High-speed steel, because of its good red hardness, makes up for the fatal shortcomings of carbon tool steel, and can be used to manufacture cutting tools such as face milling cutters. The heat treatment process of high-speed steel is more complicated and must go through a series of processes such as annealing, quenching, and tempering. The purpose of annealing is to eliminate stress, reduce hardness, make the microstructure uniform, and facilitate quenching. The annealing temperature is generally 860 to 880°C. Quenching is generally carried out in two stages due to its poor thermal conductivity. First preheat at 800~850℃ (so as not to cause large thermal stress), then quickly heat to the quenching temperature 1190~1290℃ (different grades have different temperatures in actual use), and then oil cooling or air cooling or gas-filled cooling. All factories use salt furnaces for heating, and vacuum furnaces are now widely used. After quenching, a part (about 30%) of retained austenite is not transformed into martensite because of the internal structure, which affects the performance of high-speed steel. In order to transform the retained austenite and further improve the hardness and wear resistance, generally 2 to 3 times of tempering are required, the tempering temperature is 560℃, and the heat preservation is 1 hour each time. Production method: Usually electric furnace is used for production. Recently, powder metallurgy has been used to produce high-speed steel, so that the carbides are evenly distributed in the form of extremely fine particles on the substrate, which improves the service life. High-speed steel is mainly used to manufacture various cutting tools such as face milling cutters. The specific manifestations of the milling cutter are: 1. The three-face and face milling cutter is used to process various grooves and step surfaces, and there are teeth on both sides and circumference. 2. Angle milling cutters are used for milling grooves at a certain angle. There are two types of single-angle and double-angle cutters. 3. The saw blade milling cutter is used to process deep grooves and cut off the workpiece, and there are more teeth on the circumference. In order to reduce the friction during milling, there are 15'~1? secondary deflection angles on both sides of the cutter teeth. In addition, there are keyway milling cutters, dovetail milling cutters, T-slot milling cutters and various forming milling cutters. 4. T-shaped milling cutter is used to mill T-shaped slots. 5. Cylindrical milling cutter is used to process plane on horizontal milling machine. The cutter teeth are distributed on the circumference of the milling cutter. According to the tooth shape, they are divided into straight teeth and spiral teeth. According to the number of teeth, there are two types: coarse teeth and fine teeth. The helical coarse-tooth milling cutter has a small number of teeth, high tooth strength and large chip holding space, which is suitable for rough machining; fine-tooth milling cutters are suitable for fine machining.

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